state analysis by state action

Action 1 Top Right: 

Link state K–12 data systems with early learning, postsecondary education, workforce, social services, and other critical agencies.

By linking data systems across the P–20/workforce spectrum, states will be able to evaluate whether students, schools, and districts are meeting many states’ college- and career-readiness expectations.

Page Title: 
state analysis by state action
Action 2 Top Right: 

Create stable, sustained support for state longitudinal data systems.

Longitudinal data systems are not one-time investments but critical state infrastructure that require maintenance and enhancements over time to meet new stakeholder demands.

Action 3 Top Right: 

Develop governance structures to guide data collection, sharing, and use.

Data governance, a critical aspect of data management, provides organizations and agencies an opportunity to define the roles and responsibilities needed to institutionalize their commitment to data quality and use.

Action 4 Top Right: 

Build state data repositories (e.g., data warehouses) that integrate student, staff, financial, and facility data.

Data warehouses are essentially secure storage facilities where detailed and reliable educational data from several areas that affect student performance are stored and integrated. They allow data that have been traditionally stored in different silos to be linked or integrated, allowing states to inform various practices and policies.

Action 5 Top Right: 

Implement systems to provide all stakeholders with timely access to the information they need while protecting student privacy.

Without access to the right information, stakeholders are forced to make decisions based on anecdote, experience, or instinct. For information to be useful, it must be timely, readily available, and easy to understand.

Action 6 Top Right: 

Create progress reports with individual student data that provide information educators, parents, and students can use to improve student performance.

Creating progress reports using student-level longitudinal data enriches the information that is available to parents and teachers by providing information on a student’s academic history, including courses taken, grades received, and scores on formative and statewide assessments.

Action 7 Top Right: 

Create reports that include longitudinal statistics on school systems and groups of students to guide school-, district-, and state-level improvement efforts.

All stakeholders need information on school, district, and state performance to gauge progress and make decisions to support continuous improvement at all education levels.

Action 8 Top Right: 

Develop a purposeful research agenda and collaborate with universities, researchers and intermediary groups to explore the data for useful information.

To make full use of the longitudinal data states are collecting, states need access to individuals with high-level analytical skills and research training to securely use the data to answer the multitude of policy and evaluation questions.

Action 9 Top Right: 

Implement policies and promote practices, including professional development and credentialing, to ensure educators know how to access, analyze, and use data appropriately.

To ensure that data are used to inform teaching in the classroom and to promote continuous improvement at the school and district levels, educators must be trained on how to access, analyze, and interpret the data.

Action 10 Top Right: 

Promote strategies to raise awareness of available data and ensure that all key stakeholders, including state policymakers, know how to access, analyze, and use the information.

In addition to educators, other stakeholders, including students, parents, policymakers, and community members, need to know what data are available and be able to access, interpret, and use data effectively.

Action 1 State Progress: 

There is a growing demand for postsecondary data to answer critical policy questions.

  • 44 states link K–12 and postsecondary data systems, up from 38 states in 2011, helping them evaluate whether students, schools, and districts are meeting college-readiness expectations.
  • 24 states link postsecondary and workforce data systems, an increase from 14 states in 2011, allowing states to determine whether students are prepared for the workforce.
  • Most states (47) have created high school feedback reports that provide information on how graduates fare in postsecondary. Forty-two of these states make the reports publicly available.
Action 2 State Progress: 

The majority of states are viewing sustainability of their data efforts as a state responsibility and acknowledge that they cannot rely solely on federal funding. Despite the recent financial challenges in many states, 41 states are funding their state’s data system, up from 31 states in 2011 and eight states in 2009, reflecting a belief that data are critical in the decisionmaking process at all levels. States are also establishing policies mandating the building or use of P–20W systems (45 states, an increase from 36 states in 2011).

States funding their data systems are also ensuring use by establishing state policies requiring data system use.

Action 3 State Progress: 

States are increasingly recognizing the need to address concerns of turf, trust, technology, and time by establishing governance bodies.

  • Forty-three states have established both state education agency and cross-agency data governance (up from 36 states in 2011).
Action 4 State Progress: 

The majority of states continue to ensure robust data systems by enhancing data collection and storage.

  • Every state has either built and implemented a K–12 data repository or is in the process of building a K–12 data repository.
  • • Of the 48 states that have built a K–12 data repository, over 77 percent include at least four educator-level data components (such as demographics, certification, professional development, etc.) and over 93 percent include at least three components.
Action 5 State Progress: 

States are providing stakeholders access to data.

  • States have been providing stakeholders with access to data in a measured way, starting with the stakeholders easiest for states to reach—district superintendents (46 states) and principals (46 states).
  • Thirty-nine states are providing access to aggregate-level longitudinal data to superintendents, state staff, and the public (an increase from 37 states in 2011).
Action 6 State Progress: 

Most states produce reports that analyze an individual student’s data in different ways.

  • Forty-four states produce growth reports, 33 diagnostic, 31 early warning, and 26 college- and career-readiness reports.
  • Of states that produce each type of report, the majority of states tailor each report for district staff, principals, and teachers.
Action 7 State Progress: 

States are producing multiple reports and dashboards with aggregate-level longitudinal data.

  • Forty-eight states produce reports about schools, districts, and groups of students using longitudinal data (an increase from 39 states in 2011). These reports include high school feedback (47 states), cohort graduation (43), growth (41), and college- and career-readiness reports (28).
Action 8 State Progress: 

More states are supporting their research capacity by partnering with other organizations to implement a research agenda.

  • Forty-three states are developing a purposeful research agenda with other organizations in an effort to build the state’s research capacity (an increase from 36 states in 2011). Most of these states have partnered with higher education institutions (39 states).
  • Forty-four states have a process through which outside researchers can propose studies using state data, up from 39 states in 2011.
Action 9 State Progress: 

States value the use of data by educators in classrooms, as evidenced by the number of states training teachers and principals to use data.

  • Forty-one states train teachers and principals to use longitudinal data to tailor instruction and inform schoolwide policies and practices.
  • Forty-three states train teachers and principals to use and interpret specific reports. In 42 of these states, the state plays an active role in training educators.
Action 10 State Progress: 

An overwhelming majority of states are raising public awareness about available data.

  • Forty-eight states use outreach tools to communicate the availability of data to noneducator stakeholders.
  • Many states use traditional outreach, such as press releases and reports (48 states), followed by in-person outreach (46) to communicate the availability of data to noneducator stakeholders.
Action 1 What It Takes: 

K–12 and early childhood data are annually matched and shared with a known match rate.

43 states match

K–12 and postsecondary data are annually matched and shared with a known match rate.

44 states match

K–12 and workforce data are annually matched and shared with a known match rate.

19 states match

Action 2 What It Takes: 

The P–20W state longitudinal data system (SLDS) is mandated or data system use is required in state policy.

45 states match

The P–20W SLDS receives state funding.


41 states match

Action 3 What It Takes: 

A state education agency data governance committee is established.

48 states match

A cross-agency data governance committee/council is established with authority.

44 states match

Action 4 What It Takes: 

K–12 data repository is built and implemented.

48 states match

Action 5 What It Takes: 

Multiple levels or types of role-based access are established.

45 states match

Parents, teachers, and appropriate stakeholders have access to student-level longitudinal data.

14 states match

Superintendents, state policymakers, or state education agency staff, and other stakeholders have access to aggregate-level longitudinal data.

39 states match

State policy ensures that teachers and parents have access to their students’ longitudinal data.

10 states match

The state is transparent about who is authorized to access specific data and for what purposes.

26 states match

Action 6 What It Takes: 

The state produces reports using student-level longitudinal data.

41 states match

Teachers and appropriate stakeholders have tailored reports using student-level longitudinal data.

38 states match

Action 7 What It Takes: 

The state produces reports using aggregate-level longitudinal data.

48 states match

State-produced reports using aggregate-level longitudinal data are available on a state-owned public website.

46 states match

Action 8 What It Takes: 

The state has developed a purposeful research agenda with other organizations.

43 states match

The state has a process by which outside researchers can propose their own studies.

44 states match

Action 9 What It Takes: 

Teachers and principals are trained to use longitudinal data to tailor instruction and inform schoolwide policies and practices.

41 states match

Teachers and principals are trained to use and interpret specific reports.

43 states match

The state plays an active role in training educators to use and interpret specific reports.

42 states match

 

Pre-service: Data literacy is a requirement for certification/licensure or data literacy training is a requirement for state program approval.

29 states match

 

Teacher performance data is automatically shared with in-state educator preparation programs at least annually.

17 states match

Action 10 What It Takes: 

The state communicates the availability of data to noneducator stakeholders.

48 states match

The state trains noneducator stakeholders on how to use and interpret data.

35 states match

The state education agency makes data privacy and security policies public.

45 states match

Action 1 Recommendations: 

Meaningful, useful P–20W data sharing is still lacking.

  • While 43 states match K–12 data with early childhood, most links are not able to provide all the data that stakeholders need. Many states can link K–12 data systems to special education (41 states) and state prekindergarten programs (41) but not to subsidized child care (10) or Head Start/Early Head Start programs (23).
  • Among the 44 states that match K–12 and postsecondary data, most states are sharing data on students’ entry into postsecondary, such as postsecondary enrollment (41) or remediation status (37). Fewer states (29) are sharing data on students’ outcomes, such as completion or degree status, which does not give states a complete picture of students’ success at the postsecondary level.
  • Only 19 states link K–12 and workforce data systems, which limits states’ ability to have a meaningful understanding of how students are being prepared for the workforce.
Action 2 Recommendations: 

All states need to commit state funding to support their state longitudinal data system (9 without state funding).

Action 3 Recommendations: 

P–20W data governance bodies lack appropriate authority and leadership to do the work.

  • More cross-agency data governance bodies are currently authorized to exist and make decisions based on voluntary or charter agreements than legislation or executive order, which hinders their ability to be sustainable over time.
Action 4 Recommendations: 

For policymakers to answer critical questions, states need to do more to build the capacity of their data systems to include student-level data from multiple state agencies.

  • Of the 48 states that have built a K–12 data repository, less than 69 percent include student-level data from four or more state agencies (in addition to the state education agency), and three states do not include any additional data.
Action 5 Recommendations: 

Few states are ensuring parents have access to the data they need.

  • In 14 states (Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin) parents, as well as teachers and counselors, have access to student-level data.
  • Many states are unclear about their role in ensuring that local stakeholders have access to data. As the role of the state education agency evolves from being a compliance body to serving their districts, states must navigate how best to ensure that local data users, such as parents, have access to the data they need.
Action 6 Recommendations: 

States must do more to tailor reports for parents and students.

  • Of the 44 states that produce growth reports, only 22 states tailor these reports for parents and students.
  • Of the 33 states that produce diagnostic reports, only 15 tailor these reports for parents and students.
Action 7 Recommendations: 

Not all aggregate-level reports are publicly available.

  • Aggregate reports do not include individual student information and can be made publicly available, but not all states do so.
  • Forty-one states produce growth reports, but only 33 states make these reports publicly available.
Action 8 Recommendations: 

Most states need to build internal state education agency capacity to ensure accuracy of external research efforts and to carry out their own evaluation and research activities.

  • Seven states do not yet have a statewide research agenda.
Action 9 Recommendations: 

States and teacher preparation programs have not developed effective partnerships for data sharing.

  • Only 17 states share teacher performance data with educator preparation programs, providing them the data they need to improve their programs.

It is difficult for states to develop data literacy policies and practices for their educators.

  • Only 14 states require data literacy for both educator certification and education preparation program approval.
Action 10 Recommendations: 

Most states need to ensure noneducator stakeholders are trained on how to use and interpret data to inform decisions.

  • Only 35 states train noneducator stakeholders on how to use and interpret data. Even fewer states provide more active forms of training either directly or through partnering with higher education or nonprofits.